Acronyms, terms that were part and parcel of Shanghai history prior to 1949.

Old Shanghai – refers to the period when western powers inhabited Shanghai city, thanks to Opium wars and subsequent international treaties.

S.M.C. –  Shanghai Municipal Council – The governing body of Shanghai International settlement.

Shanghai International Settlement – the quasi British colony.

S.M.P. –  Shanghai Municipal Police . The policing body of the international settlement composed of Chinese, Sikhs, Russians, Vietnamese, British, American, Australian and other nationalities.

Gurdwara – Sikh Temple or worship place. Sikhs are primarily from Punjab, India  and followers of Sikhism founded by Guru Nanak.

French Concession – the part of the Old Shanghai governed by French.

Zhabei/Chapei – Chinese side of Old Shanghai city.

Nansih/Nantao – Chinese section of Old Shanghai city.

Ghadr – Indian freedom movement to overthrow the British. It had activists in USA, China, and India.